Fibres are divided into three different groups
1. Natural fibres – All fibres with a natural origin, there are two undergroups:
– Plant fibres ex. cotton, linen, ramie, hemp, jute
– Animal fibres ex. silk and all kinds of wool
- Human-Made Cellulosics fibres (regenerated fibres) – Made from natural raw material, cellulosa, made into fibres through a chemical process ex. viscose, modal, cupro, lyocell, acetate
- Synthetic fibres – Made from petroleum, air and water that result in plastic, polymer which is melted into fibres. Ex. polyester, acrylic, elastane, polyamide
Cotton – The most used fibre on the market, it comes from the cotton plant. It is kind to the skin, comfortable to wear, breathable, durable and easy to care.
Organic cotton – Any type of cotton that is grown without chemicals, pesticides and from plants that are not genetically engineered.
Pima cotton – Cotton with a very long fibre length. This makes it smoother, wrinkle- and pilling resistant and very luxurious.
Recycled cotton – It can be recycled from post-consumer garments or from industrial waste in the textile production process. It enables waste to be reused. The cotton fibres become shorter and weaker after recycling so it is often in a blend of non recycled fibre to be strong enough.
Linen – A cellulose fibre coming from the stalk of the flax plant. Flax requires very little water, pesticides and can grow well in most types of soil. It is a strong fibre and regulating the temperature, stay cool in warm temperatures. It has a relaxed look and has a comfortable feeling against the skin. It holds colour well and get a lustrous shine.
Jute – A fibre similar to flax, the stalk of the jute plant are softened and produced into fibres. It is a quite sensitive fibre and has a coarser feeling so it its better to use for accessories than for garments. It grows rapidly and needs less resources than other cellulosic fibres.
Hemp – A stem fibre with similar features as flax and one of the most durable fibres even in wet condition. It is a quick growing plant in climates with minimal rainfall, no pesticides are needed though it naturally reduce pests. The fibre is one of the most enviromentally friendly that grows in popularity.
Wool – is a common natural fibre that is obtained from sheep and other animals – cashmere and mohair come from goats, alpaca is from animals in the camel family, and angora comes from rabbits. It is renewable, recyclable, and – if not treated with chemicals – biodegradable. Wool is best known for its warming properties when it’s cold, but it is also temperature-regulating to stay cool when it’s warm. This is due to the structure of wool fibres which enables them to trap air and absorb moisture without becoming damp.
Alpaca wool – A natural fibre that is long, fine and silky. Its warm, soft and hypoallergenic. The durability is higher than for sheeps wool.
Cashmere wool – It is the finest and softest wool on the market with combed fibres from the goat and has a luxurious feel. The fibres makes it temperature regulating so it stays warm when it´s cool and cool when it´s warm.
Merino wool – Comes from the merino sheep and has a finer and softer fibre than regular wool, it has the same the same ability to regulate temperature. The fibre holds a high quality and can be spun into fine threads.
Mohair wool – Comes from the angora goat that has long fibres with high lustre and shine. It is soft and lightweight and is considered a luxury fibre used for the most delicate high-quality woven fabrics.
Recycled wool – is made from leftover wool from production or from old garments that has mechanical ripped apart. The fibres get shorter than virgin wool because of the ripping process so it needs to be blended with conventional wool or other materials to retain its quality.
Silk – is a natural fibre that comes from the cocoon that the silkworm creates. It is one long fibre that absorbs moisture well and is strong when dry but loose its strength when wet. It needs to be handled carefully when washed.
Viscose – A human-made fibre made from cellulosic was developed to replace silk. It absorbe moisture well and has a soft feeling, it is a lighter, more sensitive fabric but easy to wash and hold the colour well over time.
Cupro – A cellulose based regenerated fibre similar to viscose. Cupro is made from cotton linter that are taken care of in the cotton production. It is not so sensitive as viscose.
Lyocell – A regenerated fibre from celllulosic mass often from eucalyptus tree that grows rapidly without any need of pesticides. In the production process of Lyocell can 99% of the chemicals used be recovered. The fibres are
Acetate – A human-made fibre from wood pulp. It is has a good lustre and is drapable, often used for linings as an alternative to silk.
Polyester – Is next to cotton the most used fibre in the textile industry. It is traditional made of plastic polymers , melted into fibres. The fibre get durable, resistant for crinkles and easy to clean and dries quick. Using polyester mixtured with other fibres make the blend holding a higher quality when it comes to durability. Polyester is the easiest fibre to recycle.
Recycled polyester – It is made from PET sourced from plastic bottles that are ripped apart and melted into new fibres. This make the fibre source get a longer life span. Its better to use already produced alternatives instead of virgin material
Polyamide – a manufactured fibre generated from a chemical process. Both polyester and polyamide are durable, but polyamide has the highest resistance of all fibres and is very stretchy and light.
Elastane – A synthetic technical fibre that gives stretch to fabric. It´s usually mixed with polyester or polyamide in sportswear, and with cotton or wool in trousers, shirts and suits to provide stretch.
Nylon – A synthetic fibre that is strong and lightweight. The fibers that makeup nylon are non-absorbent and smooth, causing items that are constructed of this fiber to dry quickly. Nylon resists dirt well and it does not become weakened by chemicals or sweat.
(Textile product terms, patterns or binding in the fabric)
Seersucker – A cloth woven in a way that some of the threads bunch together, giving the fabric a wrinkled appearance in places. This distinctive weave causes the fabric to be held away from the skin when worn, facilitating heat dissipation and air circulation. It also means that pressing is not necessary.
Chambray – Chambray is a yarn-dyed lightweight fabric mostly with different colours in warp and weft. It has the same colour on front and back. It is most common in cotton and a weight around 120-140 g/m2.
Denim – Denim is a woven heavy fabric made in a twill binding, mostly with white weft and died warp.
Herringbone – also called broken twill weave has a distinctive V-shaped weaving pattern. It looks like a broken zigzag and is called herringbone because it resembles the skeleton of a herring fish. Herringbone-patterned fabric is usually wool, and is one of the most popular cloths used for suits and outerwear.
Jacquard – Fabric with a complicated pattern that are woven or knitted with a special technique in a special loom or knitting machine.
Pinstripe – Is a pattern of very thin stripes running parallel and are created with one single warp yarn.
Poplin – Also known as tabbinet, is a plain-weave cotton fabric with very fine horizontal “ribs” or yarns, that results in a strong, crisp fabric with a silky and lustrous surface.